Transducer play a crucial role in the field of instrumentation and control engineering. Any energy in a process should be converted from one form into another form to make the communication from one rectification sector to another one.
It is a device which converts one type of energy into another form i.e. the given non-electricity is changed into an electric energy.
Kinds of transducer:
The two main types of transducers, these are: Active transducers and Passive transducers
Active transducers: Torque Sensor is a device which converts the given non-electricity into electricity by itself. Thermocouple, Photovoltaic cell and much more are the most effective types of the transducers
Passive transducers: Passive transducer is a device which converts the given non-electrical energy into electricity by external force. Resistance strain gauge, Differential Transformer are the examples for that Passive transducers.
The piezoelectric effect can be found in some materials (such as quartz) with an atomic lattice structure forming a rhomboid or cubic cell. When pressure (mechanical stress) is used towards the structure, it generates an electric powered charge and, when an electric field is used, a mechanical deformation occurs. “Piezo” hails from the Greek word for pressure.
A piezo transducer converts electric energy in mechanical energy or vice versa. Basically any kind of piezo mechanism can be referred to as a transducer. Piezoelectrics can respond very rapidly to get voltage changes and for that reason can be used to generate vibrations or sound. Piezo transducers are utilized in microphones, guitar sound pickups, speakers, buzzers, headphones, etc. The benefit of a piezo speaker more than a magnetically driven speaker lies in the simplicity, compactness, efficiency and robustness of the piezo ceramic plates that are used to move the speaker diaphragm film.
Sonar and ultrasound imaging can also be based upon piezoelectrics. In this instance, the Micro Load Cell are driven at their mechanical resonance frequency, a phenomenon that greatly raises the amplitude while reducing the input power at the same time, i.e. the device is operated at its highest efficiency.
Piezo Actuator vs. Transducer:
In motion control applications, piezo mechanic elements are often known as piezo actuators. A piezo actuator is normally employed to generate forces or to position loads very precisely. In motion control applications piezo actuators are usually operated well below their mechanical resonant frequency.
Piezo resistive sensors:
Piezoresistive sensors are low-cost, mass produced, typically silicon-based sensors that are very commonly used for pressure sensing applications. They may be sometimes used together with piezo actuators to supply position feedback or force feedback, as an example on closed-loop microscope positioning stages. Piezoresistive signifies that the resistance changes with the applied pressure. Unlike piezo sensors, piezoresistive sensors usually do not produce a charge (energy) and they also cannot convert mechanical in electricity and the other way around. In precision nano-positioning applications, piezoresistive sensors are a good option for entry-level systems. Other sensors can be found when innovative performance is necessary.
Lifetime of Piezo Mechanic Actuators:
If operated beneath the right conditions, the most recent generation of ceramic-encapsulated actuators can also work for 10’s of vast amounts of cycles.
Vibration Cancellation / Active Damping:
Because of their fast response piezo mechanic actuators are a good selection for active vibration cancellation.
Here, a vibration sensor is needed to give you the controller the proper information on how to counteract the mechanical vibration through providing the right amplitude and phase output towards the piezo actuator. The sensor can even become a piezo ceramic transducer, configured to answer strain or pressure.
Momentum Compensation / Active Damping:
Any sort of rapid actuation will cause vibrations in a work piece. According to Newton’s laws, this implies, the faster a piezo mechanical system operates, the better reactive forces it will cause. Just in case these forces are unwanted, a second piezo mechanical system having a counter mass may be integrated and driven having a signal in the opposite phase. With some fine-tuning the forces of both actuators will cancel the other person out and also the work piece may now move quickly but without exerting any force on oygoqj surrounding structures. This trick is frequently used in fast piezo steering mirrors for image stabilization in astronomical telescopes.
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